Professor François Colbert is among top scholars in arts marketing in the world having published close to 200 works and being one of the most cited author in his discipline. He is professor of marketing and holder of the Carmelle and Rémi Marcoux Chair in Arts Management at HEC Montréal.
How Do Research on Music, Children and Adolescents is Fundamental for Arts Marketing -
Marketing as a science has borrowed and continue to borrow from psychology since back in the 1950s. Among other things, marketing is interested in discovering how consumers use products
for solving practical problems as well as psychological or sociological needs. Research in arts marketing is rather new and the first to contribute to this emerging field was sociologists in the 1970s. Then starting in the 1980s marketing academics began to apply their skills to better
understand the production and promotion of artistic products. When one considers the art field, he or she rapidly discovers two poles in the market, one we call the high arts (classical music) and the other popular art (entertainment). Producers from the former category are preoccupied
with the artistic product, less so of the market, while the former try to give the market what they want. But before imagining an advertising campaign, marketing managers have to understand the consumers’ behaviours. For example, anyone involved in the production and the marketing
of classical music is trying to understand why some people are fans of this type of music and why others are not. We know from marketing research that the answer lies in the childhood of
people. Consider this statistic : two third of classical music audience is composed of university graduates. Less than ten per cent got a high school degree or less. Why is that? Mostly because family values are transmitted to the child. Teachers’ value, practising as an amateur and having
attended a concert are the remaining answers. The other intriguing question is why, in the same family environment, one child will become a classical music lover but not its sibling? Parallel to that question, is the fact that some children will grow with a taste for classical music while no
one in its family or at school show any interest in this kind of music? Why is it so? Another question orchestras struggle with is how to attract the non-consumer? What are the psychological mechanisms at play in the appropriation process of those people? How can we build the interest? How can an orchestra use the research results produced by psychologists
interested in the role of music in one’s life?
Several streams of research have been explored by researchers both in marketing and psychology. The psychology of adolescents (Bonneville-Roussy, 2013), re-listening (Conrad, 2019), music education (Elpus, 2017), music preferences (Nowak, 2019), popular billboard songs
(Pettijohn & Sacco, 2009), music in stores (north et al., 2016), and so on. The psychology of
buyers both in high arts and popular arts, as well as in other aspects of public life, is a fascinating and useful subject to research, and worth researching.
*Professor Cobert is the Carmelle and Rémi-Marcoux Chair in Arts Management, Codirector of the Master of Management in International management and author of the book Marketing Culture and the Arts, now in its fifth edition and has been published in 15 languages.
Benefits of musical training on neuropsychological functions and positive mental health in children and adolescents
Music is an exquisite form of art found in all cultures across the globe. Musical abilities are considered innate and all neurologically intact individuals are considered to born musical. Power of music in promotion of health has been acknowledged from time immemorial and music-based interventions in various forms, structured based on different schools of thoughts have been implemented in different cultures for centuries. From lullabies to soothe a disturbed physiological state in infants, or playful music to enhance positive mood in children- music helps in regulating our emotions. Music-based teaching methods have been considered a very efficient methods of transfer of knowledge from one generation to another even in non-musical pedagogies. Neuroscientific research studies have shown structural and functional differences that occur due to intense training in music. Owing to the veritable nature of the brain- neural plasticity, musical training is known to have near as well as far transfer in enhancing neuropsychological functions. Musical training is known to have positive impact on complex motor, auditory, and multimodal skills. Scientific studies have also demonstrated that in children results in long-term enhancement of visual–spatial, verbal, language functions and mathematical performance. Early childhood musical trainoing has a positive effect on not just the neurocognitive development but different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor functioning, emotional domains of functioning, social skills, interpersonal relationships, and has the immense potential in promotion of spiritual health, all of which form an integral part of overall mental health and positive mental health. In my lecture, I will focus on giving a broad overview of the aspects of mental health, positive mental health and how musical training and music based interventions can be powerful methods in promotion of the same with neuroscientific evidence from the field
Impact of music in early learning of adolescent cognitive development
Cleopatra David, PhD
Adolescence is the time of making decisions for the entire life and a time of accelerated development. Preferences for one subject or another during secondary school time are going to define the professional path of the individual. My personal experience during the high school years was about having various results in various subjects, but having stronger leanings towards science and using logic and demonstrations, than memorizing or studying literature and humanistic disciplines. I was privileged to have free access to a professional music education system since I was 6 years old. Studying a musical instrument in a professional way has been creating new paths of learning and educated my attention, made me have inspiration and creativity even when dealing with science, since music is a science itself. The purpose of this study is to examine in which degree the systematic practice of a musical instrument influences the cognitive developing of adolescents, as well as their social relationships and emotional growth. The Romanian public education system has a separate way of treating vocational learning. From the age of six, there is the possibility of studying violin or piano for free in a professional way and later for other instruments, such as cello, woodwinds and brass. Every district has a music school and maybe also a junior academy. The main purpose of this system is to prepare professional musicians with all necessary skills, material and knowledge from childhood. However, very few pursue a musical career, but the gains of exposure to classical music and the training in the professional world remain. In this regard, the research is being conducted in Romania and the questioned subjects are adolescents who have been studying an instrument in the vocational public schools.
Perception and expression of emotion for children and adolescents through music
by Colin Touchin, British conductor, composer, clarinettist, recorder player, festival adjudicator and broadcaster. Within any ensemble there are as many pathways of personal development as young people in the group. Some will have advanced physical and motor skills so they can play or sing difficult passages of music quite easily and readily, while others will struggle to overcome the technical hurdles of the repertoire tackled by the group.
Some will have learnt early and quickly how to read the notation, while others may have sight or reading problems, akin to dyslexia or other visual obstacles to smooth absorption of printed information. Some will feel comfortable within a group of fellow music-makers, but for some it can be difficult to feel confident when surrounded by peers.
Self-assessment may be a significant challenge for some, whereas others readily embrace the concept of self-awareness and how to measure that self in comparison with those around, in terms of overall maturity, technical fluency, musical expression, or other less specific, but no less significant, issues. Some singers, for example, may be blessed with naturally beautiful tone, while other enthusiastic singers may struggle to blend with others. Some players may have expensive instruments allowing them, perhaps, to be more in advance of their friends in producing good sounds more often, whereas those from perhaps
less privileged backgrounds may not have such reliable equipment with which to share their inner musical ideas and ambitions. And some are born with outstanding musical gifts which are beyond the norm, which may be seen by the less-gifted as an unfair advantage.
Leading a group presents the trainer/director/conductor with numerous issues of psychology of which the above are just some of the potential areas of concern. In order to help all those in the group, the leader must be alert and responsive to move the ensemble forward while acknowledging and addressing, in perhaps an almost unseen way, the individual needs within the group. To enable young people to grow in confidence they are more likely to thrive if their skills are nurtured thoughtfully and never stretched beyond a point of comfort or ability; yet sufficient challenge must always be there to provide new targets for growth in technical fluency and range, and in expanding awareness of emotions, aspects, issues and considerations beyond the student’s own home or school environments. Feeling confident within oneself and within the group is a basic requirement from which to feel able to develop as someone with ideas to express and the forum in which to sound them. Music which stimulates
and necessitates emotional and expressive styles of performance is more likely to encourage this growth than repetitive, formulaic music, even though the latter is more comfortable to perform and might enable some to feel a certain sense of confident.
But, mere comfort is not the main purpose of exploring musical language and repertoire. And exploration of and participation in musical activities can lead to solid, reliable, life-long discoveries about oneself and others which enable a more rounded, and at best well-rounded, emotional character in each student within the ensemble. Listening from outside such a group can also provide benefits for musical growth, emotional awareness and expressive creativity
Creative music-making for creative wellbeing- Dr Steven Berryman, composer, teacher and researcher. He is Director: Arts, Culture and Community for the Odyssey Trust for Education and a Visiting Research Fellow at King’s College, London, and Guildhall School of Music and Drama.
Research highlights the therapeutic effects of engaging in the arts, and how creative activities can help us to make meaning out of difficult situations. These are benefits that young people need now, perhaps more than ever, as we continue to emerge from the challenges of the pandemic. The challenge of the pivot to the virtual realm made a great deal of collaborative creativity challenging, and many organisations we able to rapidly reimagine their work to ensure continuity. Whilst we all welcome the gradual return to familiar ways of participating and listening to music there is much to celebrate and continue from the digital realm.
Advocacy for the role of creativity in education continues to amplify the messages from research and practice, and some recent work such as the Durham Commission for Creativity will help to galvanise collective thinking about what it is to make schools champions of creativity. This talk will share some of the insights gained from the value of creative endeavour, particularly for young people, and will share some case studies of practice that demonstrate investing time (and resource) in creative activity will have positive benefits on the wellbeing of all.
Music- as a healing for post-natal depression.-
Dr Aruna Thampy, Doctorate in vocal music (Carnatic music) from Mysore University.Post Graduate from Delhi University in Vocal music
In recent years, we have noticed in our society a lot many cases of Depression in woman post-delivery which is hardly noticed by anyone in the family. It comes under picture when these women start acting or responding differently. Naturally, they are taken to a psychiatrist a counsellor to find a solution. They return with a bunch of antidepressant pills and the problem is sorted temporarily. But this problem arises again whenever women come across a shock, stress, anxiety or work pressure. Recent survey by WHO shows a variant increase in the number of women with depression. Somehow this information made me think why this depression attack clouds our women, especially at the most beautiful moment of life like childbirth. History says, every woman goes through an emotional turmoil post-delivery due to extreme hormonal changes. But tradition has its own strategy to deal with it. It is observed that in 12 to 18th century, woman was kept in good aura post-delivery with music, entertainments, good sleep, food, and herbs, especially in south Asian countries. Once I had visited Padmanabhapuram palace in Tamil Nadu (Travancore kings lived there in 15th century). I was amused to find a separate house inside the palace with a long courtyard, where there were mural paintings, utensils for crushing and mincing herbs and lots of musical instruments like Veena, mridangam, tanpura etc. On enquiring they informed that it’s a portion of house only meant for childbirth and care for the women in the palace. This incident initiated a thought in mind as I saw the same scenarios in many old books, palaces, tribes. I understood the common healing factor in all these instances, music. Post-natal stage of a woman is like raw clay, and it needs a immense amount of patience and mind control to get it back in shape, both mentally and physically. Live music played in certain ragas generates oxytocin to a great extent in woman. Oxytocin is known as trust hormone which holds the mind like a calm flowing river. During this study, I had come across some Ayurvedic doctors specialized in post-natal recovery of women. They shared some treatment methodologies and how music helps these treatments to put in action. Certain music generates inner strength and confidence in woman, helping the body to heal and recover from the labor or post-surgery traumas. In this presentation, I shall give the symptoms of depressed woman post-delivery, how to remove the root cause and how to implement music as the base for treating depression in woman post-delivery or to erase the episodes of mental let-down with the help if music.
Music, adolescents, and wellbeing -
Professor Angelo Molino, PD, Honorary Chairman, International Music & Wellness Council (Non-Profit), Principal/Founder, Athena Music and Wellness Therapy Academy.
I will explore how young people use music to work with emotions, identity construction, and connectedness, drawing on perspectives from music
therapy, music psychology, music education,
and music sociology with examples of how theory and research is applied in the practice of music therapists working with groups of adolescents and individuals in schools, communities, hospitals, and other institutions. The ways that young people use music for connections will be explored with a particular emphasis on technology, as well as traditional face-to-face connectedness.
Children are typically able to integrate emotion information from multiple cues by the age of 8 years, although their developmental trajectory for understanding emotions appears to slow down as they enter adolescence. Adolescence is a period of intense emotions and the age group with the highest consumption of music. I will explain how the most recent techniques of receptive music therapy can be used in the helping relationship with problematic adolescents, in the construction of personality and in the discharge of negative emotions, in relationships with the outside world. We will make an overview on how the latest transformations of civil society (from the period of forced lockdown by the pandemic, up to the restructuring of personal relationships through the digital channels of new technologies), arriving at conclusions, albeit in an obviously not definitive way, given the fluidity current of the situation in which everyone still living, that will give us an idea of how the new generations will face through music that phase of crucial growth in life, adolescence and youth.
Customizing Indian Music therapy for Developmental Disorders .
Dr Sowmya Sanak-
Ph.D. - Music Therapy as Alternative Medicine and Sanak Kumar Athreya,
Indian Music Therapy.
Developmental disorders are neurological conditions among children that affect physical, behavioral, cognitive, intellectual, communication, language, and other such dimensions of their personality. These effects generally last over the whole lifetime, afflicting multiple aspects like body parts, functionalities, or life skills.
A definitive cure or preventive treatment has been identified by modern medicine.
Further no standalone therapy has shown significant contribution to improvement of these conditions. Usually, a combination of therapies is suggested, which when
implemented collectively may help achieve an overall improvement in quality of life. Recently interventional music has gained an indispensable position amid such recommendations.
Music, by itself is enjoyable as a leisure activity while also positively impacting
prime areas where improvement is sought. Musical activities could be designed for either for an individual or a group of children. Indian Music and its unique components not only have a parallel to all modern music therapy approaches but also, certain special elements that help children in enhancing interpersonal and social skills, improving peer interaction, learn suitable behavior and importantly ensuring the necessary motivation to participate. Owing to the highly structured format of Indian music, its presentation, and teaching styles, there is greater opportunity to customize the music therapy modules as per the child’s preferences, requirements and therapeutic goals.
In this presentation we would like to demonstrate through certain case studies that add anecdotal evidence to the efficacy on Indian music therapy while highlighting its adaptability to a diverse treatment design implemented across varied conditions under developmental disorders.
Presenters: Vidwan Somashekar Jois and Sanak Kumar Athreya
The Indian art-form of reciting Carnatic Percussion Syllables, in a pleasant manner, in conformity to a chosen Tala is known as Konnakkol. It is perhaps the most complex, intricate & aesthetically designed vocal rhythmic system in the world, unparalleled-unsurpassed-unrivalled in stature. It is an immensely attractive art that is continuously rising in popularity all over the world. The practitioners of this tradition are able to add a distinct flavor to their performances. They also gain a
good command over rhythm, and a rare ability to understand & adapt to any
percussion style, from any part of the world
Konnakkol is at least as old as Bharatha’s Natya Shastra, so too is Konnakkol
Therapy where the practice of specific sounds, and their combinations are claimed to have significant impact on mind and body of a person. At the outset learning .
Konnakkol makes a person confident, provides clarity in speech, improves
memory, betters logical thinking and leads to overall personality development.
Significant parts of Konnakkol Therapy are simple to administer, logical, verifiable and effective. The therapy system has yielded good results in conditions such as speech disorders and delays, Stammering or stuttering, certain Respiratory conditions, Anxiety disorders Stress and Depression, Techniques of Konnakkol appear to work well in Anger management and addressing behavior issues in special needs children.
Further Konnakkol has the unique characteristic of being able to connect with people from across various backgrounds, age groups (especially adolescents), music expertise, or culture.
In this presentation we would like to build awareness on the authenticity and
antiquity of Konnakkol Therapy, Present novel techniques to remedy child and
adolescent issues and a few interesting case studies.
'Importance of music for the education of the youth and how this aspect can offer various professional perspectives for children'
Music education as a tool for cultural, social and professional integration of the youths
The presentation will focus on the importance of music education towards a healthy development of children and teenagers. Music education represents a way for the youths to understand better their identity and how they fit in, to express and explore deeper their feelings and emotions. Studying music from a very young age can open up many interesting professional perspectives, in various fields but can also help to develop a strong but sensitive character, self-discipline and excellent organizational skills. The presentation will further focus on music education as a performance art which involves unique educational skills and tools designed to enable the youths to achieve self-realization and life integration in the society. A couple of case studies will enrich the presentation, focusing on the positive impact of musical projects such as El Sistema or Recycled Orchestra over the local communities with a focus on youth development and social emotional learning and professional development. Music helps teenagers release or control emotions and helps coping with difficult situations such as peer pressure, substance abuse, or the pain of loss. Moreover, youths associate playing music with music literacy, listening skills, motor ability, eye-hand coordination and heightened intellectual capabilities. Making and performing music provides the freedom for teens to just be themselves; to be something they thought they could never be; to be comfortable and relaxed at school and elsewhere in their lives. Music education is considered as an important resource for greater creativity, a 21st century skill that’s highly likely to help young people stand out in an increasing competitive global economy, based more and more on skills such as creativity and innovation.
Perception/expression of emotion for children and adolescents through music - From a Child Psychologist's perspective-
Music has long since been considered the language of the Gods. Music has an
ability to evoke emotions, calm emotions, aid expression and dissipate or initiate anger, aid sleeping or assist in wakefulness. Whatever the need or requirement, music has the ability to deliver. Music plays a role in a child’s development right from when the child is in the womb. Emotions are the core aspect of human behaviour and wellbeing. Studies indicate that music can reliably convey emotions to listeners and also help listeners express their own emotions through music. Popular music has since ages been the voice of young and adolescents. It has been a form of their expression, a representation of their rebellion and feelings and emotions too. Music not just helps children express but is also a common language that they understand. It is a different language from that spoken by parents or by adults in their vicinity. Music is a wonderful tool for studying and understanding emotions. Music also acts as a tool to bring about awareness of feelings. Adolescents and teens are also known to recognize emotions through music, which in turn is influenced by a range of process that relate to various individual types and personalities. Music has been called the language of emotions and rightly so. It beautifully sets the tone for a child’s expression at any particular time. For example, try changing the track, the TV channel or the radio station once your child has been listening to it and enjoying it for a few minutes. The child’s behaviour immediately changes. From arguing, to screaming to even throwing tantrums to come back to the original track or channel is what your child will do. Similarly violent music that has a lot of heavy banging or sharp sounds bring about a dark expression of emotion form children. Children and adolescents following cults or punk are classic examples of this kind of behaviour. Similarly, children as young as 4 and 5 years have been known to adapt to and reflect feelings of happiness, joy, excitement, anger or enthusiasm. Also noteworthy is the fact that each individual, child or adolescent perceives music differently. If for some the music is upbeat, for others it might be loud and violent and for some others it could be peppy and happy. If music is a tool that explains emotions to children, then it is also a wonderful means for children to express their own emotions, feelings and thoughts at a particular time. Keeping a track of your child’s music listing and giving them company while they listen to music will give you an insight into their feelings or emotions. Often joining in the fun or singing along will open up closed doors of communication too between parent and children. Children easily express through music. Even children as young as a few months old, sway to music or clap hands or tap feet. If such young children can express through music; then why not adolescents or teens? Music truly is a wonderful tool for children and adolescents to express themselves and their perceptions of various situations or circumstances.
Music, Health and Creativity- Dr Patricia will reflect on the ancient relationship between music and medicine, discuss some of the latest discoveries in music cognition and reflect on the impact that practicing and listening to music has on the development of individual and social health and on the development of creativity.
Effects of music on teenager’s mood-
Challenges in Education of Young Conductors.-
Jin Wang, PhD – Conductor and composer
I am a conductor and composer, and I am writing right now my third symphony. But my musical
education started in my early childhood as violinist. All the members of my family are
professionals in the classical musical world and this was a very good and nourishing
environments which created a very good basis for my later development. During the last years I
started to train the young generation of conductors and I have led masterclasses and was member
in the jury of conducting competitions. My presentation is offering a historical survey of this
profession and the its educational background, like firstly learning very good a musical
instrument and being a composer and later conducting. Then the way the education system
changed and this allowed young generation to approach this profession more from a visual point
of view than a musical one. The challenges start from the illusion the marketing is creating
regarding this profession and also from the technology, which makes the recording business very
profitable while the musical act and the art are suffering. The musical education level for the
orchestra members is getting higher all the time and the technical ability of performers is
amazing. The art of conducting should suppose finding meanings of the musical works, a certain
structure and to reveal things of the score that not even musicologists can figure. However,
without being proficient in performing a musical instrument, the chances to understand the inner
secrets of music are almost inexistent.
Effects of music on brain development and child behaviour. - from a neuroscience perspective, Professor Samuel Quinto FRSA
Music has the power to work on several areas of the brain at the same time, especially when we need to read a score, interpret the symbols, listen to what we are doing, work fine motor coordination, in addition to working on emotions to create a great interpretation. We know from neuroscience studies that our brain has two hemispheres, the left is responsible for reason, logic, linguistics and linear, and likes to put everything in order. The right hemisphere is emotional, experimental and autobiographical. The left side focuses on the text and the right side on the context.
What can we see about that? That emotionally stable, resolved, happy people better develop learning and improve memory - decorating lyrics and melodies. Music has the power to release a neurotransmitter called Dopamine, which is responsible for the
feeling of well-being and happiness. Right in the midst of turbulent periods as we are currently living in, there is nothing like a good natural injection of dopamine. Right?
Welcome on board!
Music enhances linguistic skills in children -
*Conductor Charalampos Makris is the conductor and director of Filarmonikí Scholí Pállis (Pallis Philharmonic School of Music) in Cephalonia, Greece,
Professor of Choral and Wind Band Conducting at the Metropolitan Conservatoire of Peristeri in Athens, Greece.
It is widely known that music enhances several skills such as reading comprehension, rapid auditory processing as well as improving general academic development. Recent studies by distinguished academic institutions including MIT and the University of California suggest that music trains children’s brains for higher forms of thought. Students attending music lessons noted remarkably higher scores in mathematics than students who abstained from music lessons.
Further research shows that music education is the link between the
young’s mind and high academic performance. Music may Improve linguistic skills in a more beneficial way than offering children extra reading lessons. By reinforcing aural skills, musical educated children have accurate responses to a series of tones of different sound pitch in comparison to the untrained. That offers a higher response to pitch differences that helps in vocabulary learning and reading by clearly understanding the word differences.